Lekhs, see also Podole & Podolia
Lekhistan -
an archaic name for Poland, used mostly by Ottoman officials .... Lakhistan

Grody Czerwienskie
( Red Ruthenia), Land of Tyvercy,  Podniestrze, Ponize, Podole, Havelanie,

Formed From:
All these names are of Polish origination, strong evidence of Polish ethnicity of the people in the area.

Original Record of:

The original Lekh territory, apart from Poland, extended far east, along the northern slopes of the
Carpathian mountains and basin of the Dniestr River to the lower run of the Boh River, almost reaching
the Black Sea shore.
The entire area was known to the Arabs as Lekhistan

Migrations & Changes:
Considered  Lithuanian territory until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin of 1569.  Apart from an
Ottoman occupation (1672 – 1699), the Poles retained Podolia until the partitions of their country in
1772 and 1793, when the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and Imperial Russia annexed the western and
eastern parts respectively.
It is believed Kievan annexation of this territory was in name only. No colonization or cultural conversion
is believed to have taken place.

Cities or towns:
Uszyca and Mikulince (In 1595, by royal charter, the village of Mikulince became a township. It was
privately owned by the population. In 1674, the Turks besieged the town and captured it. A few
residents were murdered and some were taken prisoners.)

* Latitude-Longitude: 49°24' - 25°36´
* Altitude: 941 feet
* 22 miles NNE of Suchostaw
* 10.4 miles S of Tarnopol
* 10.4 miles S of Tarnopol ,
In present day Ukraine, Mikulince is in the Ternopilska Oblast (Region / Province) and in Ternopilskyi
Raion (County/ District).


Terebovla  The city was first mentioned in chronichles in the year 1097. After the construction of a
castle in 1366


Recorded Names:
male: Jan Sobieski (later King John III) (1629-1696)   was known as the Lion of Lekhistan, the
conqueror of the Turks , Jan Tarnowski (1488-1561),
Jan Zamoyski (1542-1605),Hetman Stanislas Zolkiewski (1547-1620),Jan Karol Chodkiewicz,Stanislas
Koniecpolski (1591-1646), Stefan Czarniecki (1599-1665),Boleslaus, Miezko

Neighbors in 9th Century:
Bohemia to the West; Tyvercy to the South;
Drevylane to the East; Polish tribes to the N

Language:        Polish dialects

Sources for Research:
Ancient Podole to 1434

The Early Slavs P.M. Barford

Vernadsky’s works, Kievan Rus

Brzezinski, Richard. Polish Armies 1569-1600. (volume 1) #184 in the Osprey Men-at-Arms Series.
London: Osprey Publishing, 6, 16.

Brzezinski, Richard. Polish Winged Hussar 1576-1775. Warrior Series. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd.,

Hollins, David. Hungarian Hussars 1756-1815. Osprey Warrior Series. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, Ltd.,

Klucina, Petr. (Illustrations by Pavol Pevny) Armor: From Ancient To Modern Times. Reprinted by New
York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1992, (by permission of Slovart Publishing Ltd, Batislava).

Ostrowski, Jan K., et al. Art in Poland: Land of the Winged Horsemen 1572-1764. Baltimore: Art
Services International, 1999.

Wasilkowska, Anna. The Winged Horsemen. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Interpress, 1998.

Zamoyski, Adam. The Polish Way. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1996.

Interesting Links:


Bloeslaus I
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